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Brief Introduction

Stainless steel plates can be divided into hot rolled and cold rolled ones. They include thin cold plates of 0.02- 4 mm and mid-thick plates of 4.5-100 mm. According to their organizational characteristics, they can be divided into the following five categories: Austenitic, austenitic-ferritic, ferritic, martensitic and precipitation hardening types. They are required to bear the corrosion of various acids, such as oxalic acid, sulfuric acid - iron sulfate, nitric acid, nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid-copper sulfate, phosphoric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, etc. And they are widely used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, paper, petroleum, nuclear industries, as well as the parts of construction, kitchen utensils, cutlery, vehicles and household appliances.

Model classification(All models)

300 Series

300 Series stainless steels are the most widely used products produced by Allegheny Ludlum Corporation. They are classified as austenitic, and are hardenable only by cold working methods. These grades of stainless have chromium (approx. 18 to 30%) and nickel (approx. 6 to 20%) as their major alloying additions. Type 304 (also known as 18-8) is the most widely used alloy of all stainless steels.

301

1. End Use:An austenitice stainless steel. The high strength of this grade of steel in the six available conditions or tempers, its resistance to atmosphere corrosion and its bright, attractive surface make it an excellent choice for decorative structural applications.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .15, Mn 2.0, P .045, S 0.3, Si .75, Cr 16-18, Ni 6-8, N .1

3. Specifications: ASTM A240 ASTM A666

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa): 75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa): 30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%): 40

8. Hardness: 95 Rb

302

1. End Use::Chromium-Nickel austenitic alloy. Used for a wide variety of home and commercial applications, this is one of the most familiar and most frequently used alloys in the stainless steel family. Refrigerators, Dishwashers, Blenders, Mixers, Washing machines, Counters and Racks.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C 0.15, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si .75 Cr 17-19, Ni 8-10, N .1

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.285 (-7.9)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:92 Rb

303

1. End Use:A non-magnetic austenitic stainless steel specifically designed to exhibit improved machinability. Medical and pharmaceutical components and parts.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C 0.15, Mn 2, Si 1.0, Cr 17-19, Ni 8-10, P 0.20, S 0.15, Mo 0.60, Fe Balance

3. Specifications:ASTM A895 SAE J405

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75-90 (517-621)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30-40 (207-276)

7. Elongation (%):35-50

8. Hardness:92 Rb

304

1. End Use:Chromium-Nickel austenitic alloy. Used for a wide variety of home and commercial applications, this is one of the most familiar and most frequently used alloys in the stainless steel family. Sanitary, Cryogenic, and Pressure-containing applications, Home and commercial appliances, Tank structural parts and processing equipment.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .08, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si .75 Cr 18-20, Ni 8-10.5, N .10

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.285 (-7.9)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:92 Rb

304L

1. End Use:Chromium-Nickel austenitic alloy. Used for a wide variety of applications, this is one of the most familiar and most frequently used alloys in the stainless steel family. Sanitary, Cryogenic, and Pressure-containing applications, Home and commercial appliances, Tank structural parts and Processing equipment. Typically used where welding is requires including various types of tubing.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): C .03, Mn 2, P .045, S .03, Si .75, Cr 18-20, Ni 8-12, N .1

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.285 (-7.9)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):70 (-485)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):25 (-170)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:92 Rb

305

1. End Use:Chromium-Nickel austenitic alloy. Used for a wide variety of applications, this is one of the most familiar and most frequently used alloys in the stainless steel family used in applications where good corrosion resistance as well as excellent drawing ability is needed. Writing instruments, Utensils, Tank covers and drawn housings.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .12, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si .75, Cr 17-19, Ni 10.5-13

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3): 0.285 (-7.9)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:88 Rb

309/309S

1. End Use:Austenitic stainless steel typically used for elevated temperature applications. Furnace parts - conveyor belts, rollers, burner parts, refractory supports, retorts and oven linings, fans, tube hangers, baskets and trays to hold small parts; Containers for hot concentrated acids, ammonia and sulfer dioxide; contact with hot acetic and citric acid.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Type 309 - C .2, Mn 2.0, P .045, S.03, Si .75 Cr 22-24, Ni 12-15, Fe bal Type 309S - C .08, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si. 75, Cr 22-24, Ni 12-15, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A167 ASTM A240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):.29/ .29 (8.03/ 8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):90/ 97.1 (621/ 670)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):42/ 50.9 (290/ 351)

7. Elongation (%):49/ 44.6

8. Hardness:

310L

1. End Use:An austenitic alloy. The alloy is a modification of the 310S alloy for enhanced corrosion resistance to concentrated nitric acid and other strong oxidizing environments. Processing equipments where nitric acid is present.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Mn 1.10, Cr 24.5, Ni 20.5 (nominal)

3. Specifications:

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.287 (-7.95)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-517.1)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-206.9)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:95 Rb

310/310S

1. End Use:Furnace parts such as conveyor belts, rollers, burner parts, refractory supports, retorts and oven linings, fans, tube hangers, and baskets and trays to hold small parts. Chemical process industry to contain hot concentrated acids, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide and in the food processing industry, they are used in contact with hot acetic and citric acid.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):310: C .25, Mn 2, P 0.045, S 0.03, Si 1.5, Cr 24-26, Ni 19-22, Fe balance 310S: C 0.08, Mn 2, P 0.045, S 0.30, Si 1.5, Cr 24-26, Ni 19-22, Fe balance

3. Specifications:ASTM A167 ASTM A240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):89.5/90.5 (617/624)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):42.4/45.6 (292/314)

7. Elongation (%):45/42/6

8. Hardness:

316

1. End Use:Austenitic stainless steel typically used for elevated temperature applications. Handling hot organic and fatty acids, boat rails and hardware and facades of buildings near the ocean.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .08, Mn 2.0, Si .75, Cr 16-18, Ni 10-14, Mo 2-3, P .045, S .03, N .1, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:95 Rb

316L

1. End Use:Molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels which is more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels. This alloy also offers higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensil strength at elevated temperature. Handling hot organic and fatty acids, boat rails and hardware and facades of buildings near the ocean. Maximize life cycle costs in pulp and paper production equipment.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .03, Mn 2.0, Si .75, Cr 16-18, Ni 10-14, Mo 2-3, P .045, S .03, N 0.1, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):89 (-612)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):43 (-299)

7. Elongation (%):54

8. Hardness:95 Rb

316Ti

1. End Use:Similar to Grade 316L except that 316Ti has better high temperature strength, and mechanical strength. Used for equipment exposed to aggressive corrosive conditions and high temperature applications,including automotive flexible connectors, welded bellows, chimney liners, and flexible ducting.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): C .08, Mn 2.0, Si .75, Cr 16-18, Ni 10-14, Mo 2-3, P 0.045, S 0.03, N 0.1, Ti 0.15-0.70, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.289 (-8)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):90 (-621)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):36 (-54)

7. Elongation (%):248

8. Hardness:76 Rb

317

1. End Use:Molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels. These alloys offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperature.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Type 317 - C .08, Mn 2.0, Si .75, Cr 18-20, Ni 11-15, Mo 3-4, P .045, S .03, N .10, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):35

8. Hardness:95 Rb

321

1. End Use:A stabilized stainless steel which offers an excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion following exposure to temperature in the chromium carbide precipitation range from 800 to 1500 Deg F. Boiler and Pressure Vessels.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): C .09, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si .75, Cr 17-18, Ni 9-12, Ti .7, N .1 Fe Bal

3. Specifications: ASTM A240/A240M ASME SA-240/SA-240M AMS 5510

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.286 (-7.92)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:95 Rb

334

1. End Use:A titanium- and aluminum-bearing austenitic stainless steel offering superior elevated temperature scaling resistance compared to the conventional chromium-nickel stainless steels. Heated electric heating elements.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C 0.03, Mn 1.0, P .02, S .015, Si .75, Cr 19-19.5 Ni 19-20, Ti .4, Al .4, Cu .2 Fe Bal

3. Specifications:UL 1030

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.29 (-8.03)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):83 (-572)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):35 (-241)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:82 Rb

347

1. End Use:Stabilized stainless steel which offers excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion following exposure to temperatures in the chromium carbide precipitation rages from 800 to 1500 Deg F. Radiant heaters, Aerospace components and Oil Refining equipment.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .08, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si .75, Cr 17-19, Ni 9-13, Cb+Ta 1.0, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.288 (-7.96)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:95 Rb

348

1. End Use:Stabilized stainless steel which offers an excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion following exposure to temperatures in the chromium carbide precipitation range from 800 to 1500 Deg F. Nuclear power applications.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .08, Mn 2.0, P .045, S .03, Si.75, Cr 17-19, ni 9-13, Cb+Ta 1.0, Ta .10, Co .2, Fe Bal

3. Specifications:ASTM A240 ASME SA-240

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.289 (-7.96)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75 (-515)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):30 (-205)

7. Elongation (%):40

8. Hardness:92 Rb

400 Series

These grades of stainless have 11 to 30% chromium as the major alloy addition and are low carbon. Ductility and formability are less than that of the austenitic grades. The corrosion resistance competes with the austenitic grades for certain applications. Thermal conductivity is about half that of carbon steels.

410

1. End Use: Hardenable, straight-chromium stainless steel which combines superior wear resistance with excellent corrosion resistance.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .15, Mn 1.0, Si 1.0, Cr 11.5-13.5, Ni 0.5, S .03, Ph .04

3. Specifications:

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.276

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa): 74 (-510)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):42 (-290)

7. Elongation (%):34

8. Hardness:38-45 Rc

416

1. End Use:A Martensitic free-machining stainless steel which can be hardened by heat treatment to higher strength and hardness levels. Cutlery, Dental & Surgical Instruments.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C 0.15, Mn 1.25, Si 1.0, Cr 12-14, P 0.06, S 0.15, Mo 0.60, Fe Balance

3. Specifications: ASTM A895 ASTM A194 AMS 5610 SAE J405

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.276 (-7.64)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):75-90 (517-621)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):40-50 (276-345)

7. Elongation (%):15-30

8. Hardness:

420

1. End Use:Hardenable, straight-chromium stainless steel which combines superior wear resistance with excellent corrosion resistance. Cutlery, Dental and surgical instruments, nozzles, valve parts, hardened steel balls and seats for oil well pumps, separating screens and strainers, springs, shears, and wear surfaces.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):C .15-.40, Mn 1.0, Si 1.0, Cr 12-14, Ni 0.5, S .03, Ph .04

3. Specifications:

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.278 ()

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):85 (-586)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa): 45 (-310)

7. Elongation (%):29

8. Hardness:53-57 Rc

440A

1. End Use:Hardenable, straight-chromium stainless steel which combines superior wear resistance with excellent corrosion resistance. Cutlery, dental and surgical instruments, nozzles, valve parts, hardened steel balls and seats fro oil well pumps, separating screens and strainers, springs, shears, and wear surfaces.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): C .60-.75, Mn 1.0, Si 1.0, Cr 16-18, Mo .75, Ni .50, S.03, Ph .04

3. Specifications:

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.278

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):104 (-717)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):62 (-427)

7. Elongation (%):20

8. Hardness:57-60 Rc

440C

1. End Use:A Martensitic stainless steel hardenable to high harness levels for wear resistance applications and corrosion resistance above carbon steel. Bearings, Valve parts, Cutlery and Industrial knives.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Cr 16.5, C 1.0, Si 1.0

3. Specifications:ASTM A276 AMS 5630 QQ-S-763

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.287 ()

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):110 ()

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):65 ()

7. Elongation (%):

8. Hardness:58 Rc

PH Grades

Precipitation hardening stainless steels are designed to be formable and can subsequently be heat treated to strength levels several times that of Type 304. These materials are semi-austenitic (or sometimes called metastable austenitics) and contain chromium and nickel as the major alloying elements. Corrosion resistance is usually better than that of straight chromium ferritics.

13-8Mo

1. End Use:Stainless steels that are designed to be formable and can subsequently be heat treated to strength levels several times that of Type 304. Annealed properties are shown, consult product Technical Data Bluesheets for heat treated properties. These materials are semi-austenitic (or sometimes called metastable austenitic) or martensitic and contain chromium and nickel as the major alloying elements. Corrosion resistance is usually better than that of straight chromium ferritics.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): Cr 13, Ni 8, Mo 2, Al, low C, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASM 5864 ASTM A693 ASME SA 693

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.279 (-7.72)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):155 (-1070)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):115 (-790)

7. Elongation (%):18

8. Hardness:33 Rc

15-5PH

1. End Use:A Precipitation Hardening alloy exhibiting high strength and moderate corrosion resistance. This alloy was designed to have greater toughness than S17400, especially in the through-thickness (short transverse) direction.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): Cr 15, Ni 5, Cu 3, Cb, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A-693 ASME SA-693 AMS 5862

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.281 (-7.78)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):150 (-1030)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):110 (-760)

7. Elongation (%):10

8. Hardness:33 Rc

15-7Mo

1. End Use:AL 15-7 is a semi-austentic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is used where high strength is required is required in the final form and formability is required during fabrication. The material is supplied in the austentic state where is can be formed into shape. Subsequently it is heat treated by a two step process to form a martensitic structure and precipitates. The material has a moderate level of corrosion resistance approaching that of Type 304 stainless steel. The market application for 15-7 includes spring type applications in aerospace and other industrial markets.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Cr 15, Ni 7, Mo 2, AL 1, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A-693 ASME SA-693 AMS 5520

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.282 (-7.81)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):130 (-900)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):55 (-380)

7. Elongation (%):30

8. Hardness:88 Rb

17-4PH

1. End Use:AL 17-4 is a martensitic stainless steel that is capable of precipitation hardening. It has very high strength and hardness. It is used in the aerospace market. Fasteners, air frame parts, valve parts, fittings.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Cr 17, Ni 4,Cu 3, Cb, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A-693 ASME SA-693 AMS 5604

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.28 (-7.75)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):150 (-1030)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):110 (-760)

7. Elongation (%):8

8. Hardness:33 Rc

17-7PH

1. End Use:A chromium-nickel-aluminum precipitation hardening stainless steel used for applications requiring high strength and a moderate level of corrosion resistance. Flat springs, Bellows, Diaphragms, and Fasteners, Cockpit doors.

2. Composition nominal (wt%): Cr 17, Ni 7, AL 1, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A-693 ASME SA-693 AMS 5528 AMS 5529 (cr temper)

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.282 (-7.81)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):120 (-830)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):50 (-345)

7. Elongation (%):35

8. Hardness:85 Rb

AM 350

1. End Use:AM 350 is a semi-austentic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is capable of high strength and hardness after heat treatment. It is produced with high melt cleanliness for improved mechanical properties and resistance to fatigue failure. It also has good weldability. Typical market applications include bellows and seals for the aerospace and semiconductor industries.

2. Composition nominal (wt%):Cr 16, Ni 4, Mo 3, balance Fe

3. Specifications:ASTM A-693 ASME SA-693 AMS 5548

4. Density lb/in3 (g/cm3):0.282 (-7.81)

5. Tensile Strength ksi. (MPa):170 (-1175)

6. 0.2% Yield Strength ksi. (MPa):70 (-485)

7. Elongation (%):30

8. Hardness:100 Rb

Typical Models
304Type 304 is often used in food or beverage processing equipment for its ability to prevent contamination of the product. This is one of the most familiar and most frequently used alloys in the stainless steel family.
316Type 316 is a more expensive version of standard stainless steel sheeting, and offers a higher level of strength and corrosion-resistance. This material also retains good strength at low temperatures and additionally is easily fabricated, making it an excellent choice for cryogenic applications
410Type 410 is the most basic. It combines superior wear resistance with excellent corrosion resistance. It is a low-cost, heat-treatable grade suitable for non-severe corrosion applications.
International Identification Method

American Iron and Steel Institute uses a three-digit number to label the stainless steel of a variety of standards.

1. Austenitic stainless steel is labeled by 200 and 300 series.

2. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steel is labeled by 400 series.Eg. some of the common austenitic stainless steels are labeled by 201, 304, 316 and 310.

3.Ferritic stainless steel is labeled by 430 and 446. Martensitic stainless steel is labeled by 410, 420 and 440C

4.Stainless steel, precipitation hardened stainless steel and the alloy with less than 50% ferrum are usually named by their proprietary name or trademark name.

Selecting stainless steel plate

When selecting stainless steel plate, we should consider the operating conditions, such as the operation type, performance of pressing machine and the quality requirements of material. And when choosing the most reasonable thickness of steel plate, we should consider its life span, weight and stiffness, as well as the strength requirements, heat conduction properties, pressure distribution and the specifications of the format.


If the plate is not thick enough, it would be easy to bend and influence the production of decorative panels. If the plate is too thick, both the manufacturing cost and the operating difficulties would increase largely. In addition, the margin should be left when using or processing the stainless steel plate should also be considered. The thickness of the copper plate is not absolutely consistent. But we should try our best to keep the same thickness in one piece of plate. In a general plate, the thickness tolerance is from 0.05mm to 0.15 mm.

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